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 Chapter one: Understanding of pipeline construction drawings;1.The design specification requires that the heating branch pipe shall not be less than DN20;2.Thermal insulation routine practice - water supply: anti-condensation insulation, hot water: thermal insulation;Water supply: dark cover anti-condensation insulation;Through the entrance hall, bedroom and living room;3.镀锌钢管连接方式:《DN100丝接,>DN1;5.When the heating main pipe is connected to the riser, it is used when the straight pipe section of the riser is 15m.6.During construction, the drainage pipe should be high rather than low, and the floor drain should be low rather than high;7.Elevation requirements: indoor pipes are generally in the pipe, and outdoor pipe drainage is;8

第一章 管道施工图识读
1. The design specification requires that the heating branch pipe shall not be less than DN20。
2. Thermal insulation conventional practice - water supply: anti-condensation insulation, hot water: thermal insulation, fire protection: not thermal insulation, frozen water: even the valve needs to be thermal insulation, cooling water: according to the design requirements, not required can not be done。Generally, the pipes in the ceiling should be insulated。
Water supply: dark cover anti-condensation insulation;The entrance hall, bedroom and living room must be protected from condensation and heat preservation。Drainage: dark compress to prevent condensation and heat preservation;Ming Fu public toilet seat on the reverse bend must be done。 The pipe well is insulated except for fire fighting and spraying pipes。
3. 镀锌钢管连接方式:《DN100丝接,>DN100可焊接(需防腐),可法兰焊接(需二次镀锌),少量可丝扣法兰连接。 4. The distance between the pipe skin and the wall is 25-50mm。
5. 采暖干管接立管时,当立管直线管段<15m时,采用2个90。弯头,当直线管段>15m时采用3个90。弯头。
6. During construction, the drainage pipe should be high rather than low, and the floor drain should be low rather than high。
7. Elevation requirements: the indoor pipeline is generally in the pipe, the outdoor pipeline drainage is the bottom of the pipe, and the water supply is the top of the pipe。
8. 暖气片中应与窗同轴。
9. Gate valve: switch action, resistance coefficient 0.5;Globe valve: Adjust the switch action, resistance coefficient 19。
10. The compensator is divided into: natural compensation, square expansion force, elbow, ripple compensator, sleeve compensator, ball expansion force, horn expansion force。
11. Gas collecting tank: the end of the dry pipe, the pipe diameter is 4-6 times the diameter of the end pipe。Expansion tank: pressure regulation, exhaust, accommodate expansion water, signal function。气压罐:稳压、排气。
There are five pipes in the expansion tank: expansion pipe, circulation pipe, overflow pipe, sewage pipe and signal pipe。 Collecting tank installation position: the pipe interface is 2/3 away from the upper end of the collecting tank, and 1/3 away from the lower end。 12. According to the standard atlas, grasp the heat medium inlet situation。
13. PP-R pipe can be applied with aluminum-plastic composite pipe or water supply U-PVC pipe quota。
14. (1) Rigid waterproof casing: Type I waterproof casing, type II waterproof casing, type III waterproof casing type I waterproof casing is suitable for cast iron pipe and non-metal pipe;Type II waterproof sleeve is suitable for steel pipe;The Type III waterproof sleeve is suitable for embedding steel pipe, and the wing ring is directly contained on the steel pipe。 (2) Flexible waterproof sleeve is generally suitable for structures with vibration or strict waterproof requirements where the pipeline passes through the wall。
General pipe through the outer wall of the pipe plus waterproof sleeve。The pipeline through the pool adopts flexible waterproof sleeve。 If the outdoor water level is high, use a flexible waterproof casing. If the outdoor water level is low, use a rigid waterproof casing。 15. General water meter pipe diameter is one smaller than the pipe diameter。
16. Where two or more water supply points are connected to the water supply branch pipe, the branch pipe shall be fitted with flexible joints and flanges。若支管接水表除外。
17. Regulations: The upper edge of the washbasin (washing basin) is 800mm away from the ground. The water nozzle is 200mm from the top edge of the basin.
Mop pool spout 300mm from the upper edge of mop pool toilet water 250mm from the ground basin water supply 450mm
18. Valves and loose joints must be added when the riser is released from the ground。
19. Fire hydrant: Single bolt DN65 specification: bolt mouth outward, should not be installed on the side of the door shaft
Double bolt DN65 or DN50 hydrant box thickness 240mm, bolt mouth center distance from ground single bolt + self-rescue reel 1.1m 20. Water meter installation: Residential: valve + water meter Public buildings: valve + water meter + valve
Outdoor: valve + water meter + valve + drain valve + shock absorption, etc
21. Cleaning port: Cleaning port should be added to the branch pipe of two or more sanitary appliances, if there is a floor drain can not be added。
Riser check port: The bottom and top layers must be set up every one to two floors。 When the length of the main pipe crosses several rooms every 8-12m, a cleaning or inspection port should be added。
22. The diameter of the riser must be changed with a small head, and the branch pipe can be changed with a bushing, such as a water meter。 23. Drainage pipe elbow tee selection: horizontal pipe and vertical pipe should use 90 degrees oblique tee or four-way horizontal pipe and horizontal pipe should use 45 degrees tee or four-way
Two 45-degree elbows or 90-degree elbows with radius greater than 4x D should be used for standpipes and main drainage pipes (such as outlet pipes)
24. Water trap: P-type - squatting stool S-type - Washbasin, urinal Chapter 2 Basic knowledge 1, water supply engineering
(1) Classification of outdoor water supply systems
1. Water supply systems based on surface water 2. Water supply system with groundwater as source
(2) Outdoor water supply system form: DC water supply system, circulation water supply system, sequential water supply system (3) indoor water supply system classification: life, production, fire protection
(4) Indoor water supply system composition: inlet pipe, water meter, pipeline, water supply accessories, booster water storage equipment, indoor fire equipment
(5) Pressure composition of the indoor water supply system: H = H1+H2+H3+H4 H1 = elevation difference between the inlet pipe and the most unfavorable loop and the most unfavorable point H2 = along the way and local resistance H3 = water meter resistance
H4 = outlet head (heating circulation pump only overcomes along and local resistance, head 35-40m) (6) indoor water supply mode 1. 简单给水方式 2. 设置水箱给水方式 3. 设置水泵给水方式
4. Set water supply mode of pool, pump and water tank 5. 分区给水方式 6. 气压给水方式 7. 变频给水方式
(7) Indoor water supply system pipeline schema: upper, middle and lower
(8) Indoor water supply laying method: open installation, installation (Note: galvanized steel pipe buried wall should be anti-corrosion)
(1) Sewage and classification: domestic, production, rain and snow water (2) Drainage system: confluence and diversion
(3) Drainage system composition: outdoor, indoor 3, heating engineering (1) heating system classification
1. According to the use of heat medium: hot water, steam, hot air 2. According to the cycle power: mechanical, natural 3. According to the water supply and return method: single pipe, double pipe 4. According to the heating scope: local, central, regional (2) the basic form of hot water heating system 1. 上供下回双管 2. 下供上回双管
3. Vertical single tube: sequential, leap-over, adjustable sequential, backward flow 4. 单一双管系统 5. 水平单管系统 6. 分区供暖 7. (3) Main equipment of heating system
1. Expansion tank: (following the suction inlet of the pump) constant pressure, exhaust, accommodate expansion water, signal action 2. 集气罐
3. Expansion device: (high-rise use) corrugated expansion device, sleeve expansion device, natural expansion force expansion device Four, ventilation and air conditioning (1) air conditioning classification
1. According to the setting of air handling equipment: centralized system: air conditioning units directly supply each room
Semi-centralized system: water-cooled unit - fresh air unit/fan coil Fully dispersed system: water-cooled unit - fan coil
2. According to the type of medium used to load indoor load, it is divided into: all-air system, all-water system, air-water system, and refrigerant system
3. According to the centralized air conditioning treatment of air sources: closed, direct flow, mixed
4. According to the sub-parts: air conditioning system, air conditioning water system, purification air conditioning system, refrigeration equipment system, water cooling unit, cooling tower
(2) Main equipment;Air conditioning unit, fresh air unit, fan coil (3) Ventilation system:
1. Air supply and exhaust system: civil air defense, basement, garage (steel plate, fiberglass) 2. Smoke control system (steel plate, glass fiber reinforced plastic, structural air duct) 3. 除尘系统
5. Boiler classification and model representation method (1) Classification
1. Divided by use: industrial, heating, power station, locomotive 2. According to the heat carrying medium: steam, hot water 3. Divided by structure: fire tube, water pipe, water and fire tube mixing 4. By fuel: coal, oil, gas 5. According to the type of combustion: hand burning and mechanical
6. According to the way of assembly: quick loading, assembly, bulk (2) Type representation method Chapter 3 Specifications (1) Water supply and drainage and heating
1..Before installation, the valve should be tested for strength, and 10% should be extracted from a batch. If 10% is extracted, the pass rate is 95% or 99.9%均为不合格。Strength test pressure = nominal pressure *1.5;Tightness test pressure = nominal pressure *1.1
2.The closed-circuit valves installed in the main pipe that play a cutting role should be tested for strength and tightness one by one。 3.The outer diameter of the stamped elbow on the pipe should be = the outer diameter of the elbow Ordinary stamped elbow welded steel pipe Seamless stamped elbow seamless steel pipe welded steel pipe DN100 Nominal diameter seamless steel pipe Φ100*4.5 Outer diameter * Wall thickness spiral welded pipe D109*4.5 外径*壁厚
4.When pipes pass through the outer walls of basement or underground structures, waterproof measures should be taken, and flexible waterproof sleeves should be used for those with strict requirements。.
Rigid waterproof sleeve: used when not required by the general design
Flexible waterproof sleeve: design required parts;Structures with a higher water table;Pool 5.The following measures shall be taken when pipelines are laid through expansion joints, settlement joints and seismic joints:
(1) Expansion joint: water supply, spray and rubber soft joint;Chilled water with stainless steel soft joint
6.The position of the support is correct, and it should be buried smoothly and firmly: (1) the equipment and accessories should be equipped with hangers, supports, brackets (2) the end, the elbow, and the tee (3) should be evenly divided according to the standard spacing (Note: the spray end should be used as an anti-shaking support)
7.The contact between the fixed support and the pipeline should be firm and tight。
8.The sliding bracket, slide drag and chute should leave a gap of 3-5m。 9.The pipe hanger without thermal expansion should be installed vertically, and the pipe hanger with thermal extension should be reversed in the direction of thermal expansion。
10.The pipe support hanger fixed on the building structure does not affect the structural safety。 11.采暖、给水、热水系统立管管卡的设置: (1)楼层高度《5m,每层必须装1个 (2)楼层高度>5m,每层不得少于2个
(3) Pipe card installation height from the ground 1.5-1.8m,2个管卡匀称
(4) When the diameter of the water supply and drainage pipe in multi-storey buildings is greater than 25mm, the riser can be without support, but the bottom layer of the drainage riser should be added pipe pier。
(5) Drainage cast iron, water supply galvanized steel pipe risers should make the bracket into a floor card。
12.Telescopic pipes should be added casing, heating, hot water, freezing, cooling, condensate water through the wall, floor should be added casing, water supply, fire fighting, spraying, drainage unnecessary。
13.After the bolt is tightened, highlight the length of the nut "1/2 of the diameter of the screw, and the threaded connection should be exposed 2-3 buttons。 14.The water supply riser and the branch pipe with more than or equal to 3 water distribution points should be installed with removable connectors (such as loose joints), but if there is a water meter, flange valves do not need to be added。 15.Hot and cold water: top hot, bottom cold, left hot and right cold。
16.Anti-corrosion treatment: buried drainage cast iron pipe: asphalt anti-corrosion;Buried steel pipe (including galvanized steel pipe) : three levels of anti-corrosion。
17.The overflow pipe and drainage pipe of the water tank should be located near the drainage pipe but should not be directly connected with the drainage pipe。 18.Spring shock absorber should not be used for vertical pump shock absorber。
19.Indoor drainage pipe: U-PVC drainage pipe, cast iron pipe, concrete pipe, steel pipe can be used between the composition of washbasin and drinking water sprinkler and the common water seal and the connection of the drainage pipe of sanitary appliances。
The branch pipe with 1 toilet "DN100", the branch pipe with 1 stool trough "DN150", and the branch pipe with more than 3 sanitary utensils "DN75"
20.Indoor rain pipe: water supply cast iron pipe, water supply plastic pipe, galvanized steel pipe, black pipe (internal anti-corrosion) 21.The riser inspection port shall be added at every other layer, and the bottom and top layers shall be added with sanitary utensils。 22.Drainage riser and main pipe (such as household pipe) should be tested through the ball, ball diameter "drainage pipe diameter 2/3。U-PVC drainage risers should be equipped with expansion joints or tees (with expansion joints) and fire retardant rings (or fire sleeves)。伸缩节间距不大于4米。
23.Connecting 2 or more toilets or 3 or more sanitary appliances across the pipe shall be provided with a sweep outlet。(清通设备)
24.Horizontal pipe and horizontal pipe, horizontal pipe and riser should adopt 45 degree tee or 45 degree four, 90 degree oblique tee or 90 degree oblique four。Risers and drains shall use two 45 degree elbows or 90 degree elbows with curvature radius not less than 4 times pipe diameter (TY tee)。
25. The drainage vent is 300mm above the roof and must be greater than the snow thickness (non-roof). Beijing regulations are 600mm。
26. When the outdoor drainage pipe passes through the wall or the foundation must be reversed, a 45-degree elbow or tee should be used, and a sweeping outlet should be set up in the vertical pipe section。
27. Indoor hot water is divided into: full cycle, half cycle, no cycle。Hot water pipes should try to use natural compensation thermal expansion (elbow, square expansion force)
28. The water pipe should be washed, and the tank body should be irrigated without water pressure test。Hot water supply and return water, water collection tank, water distribution tank, hot water tank, etc., should be kept warm。The open water tank should be tested for full water, and the closed water tank should be tested for hydraulic pressure。
29. Use embedded bolts or expansion bolts to secure sanitary appliances。Sanitary appliances should be tested for full water and through water。
30. 室内采暖钢管:焊接钢管《DN32螺纹连接,>DN32焊接
31. Pipe slope: the slope of hot water pipe, steam pipe and condensate pipe in the same direction shall not be less than 2/3。The reverse flow of steam water, hot water pipe, steam pipe slope is greater than or equal to 5 ‰。The slope of the radiator branch pipe is equal to 1%, and the slope direction should be conducive to drainage and drainage。
32. Both the balance valve and the regulating valve (the main pipe of the system) have a direction and a pressure interval。 33. Square compensator should be made of whole seamless steel pipe。 34. 散热器支管长度>1.5m时应安装管卡。
35. The hot water pipe reducer of the upper supply and lower return system should be connected with the top flat eccentric connection, and the steam pipe reducer should be connected with the bottom flat eccentric connection。
High temperature water (110-130。C)加法兰或法兰阀门。
The pipe in the non-high-temperature water ceiling is best not to use a live joint, but to use a flange valve or a wire valve with a pair of flanges。 38. Radiator with foot pieces, 14 pieces less than 2 legs, 14 pieces more than 3 legs。20片以上拉条。
39. Filter: pump inlet plus, small。
40. Decontaminator, heating system the whole building, heat exchange station, boiler room backwater housekeeper decontaminator, larger。 除污器一般须加旁通管。Bypass accessories should be added to the main clearing and perishable equipment。 

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Chongqing Ruichao Construction Engineering Co., Ltd. was established in 2006, with a registered capital of 20.6 million yuan. It has three professional qualifications for general contracting of construction projects, two professional qualifications for decoration and decoration projects, professional qualifications for formwork and scaffolding, and labor points...

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